Istanbul is the biggest city in Turkey and In Europe, according to population – it has over 14 million inhabitants. Istanbul is Turkey’s financial, cultural and healthcare hub – it’s the city with the most JCI accredited private hospitals. The city spreads on both sides of the Bosphorus – The strait that divides the Marmara Sea and the Black Sea. Istanbul also connects Europe to Asia forming a very interesting mix, both gastronomically and culturally.
Over 11 million tourists visited Istanbul in 2012, making it the fifth most popular tourist destination in the world.
Sights to See
The Blue Mosque
The Sultan Ahmed Mosque, also called the Blue Mosque incorporates Islamic architecture and Byzantine Christian elements in its design. It is considered to be the last great mosque of the classical period. The Mosque got its name from the 20,000 Iznik blue ceramic tiles used to line its interiors. The Blue Mosque is also the final resting place of Sultan Ahmed which commissioned the building in 1609, with work finishing in 1616.
The Basilica Cistern is one of the most popular tourist sites in Istanbul. The Cistern is huge, with a total of 336 columns arranged in 12 rows. It was built in order to store water during the Byzantine time – in the 6th century. Most of the columns feature decorative carvings, as they were re-used from other classical-age structures. Some of the most interesting columns on the site are the Medusa stones, in the north-west corner of the Cistern.
Topkapı Palace is one of the finest examples of Islamic art and architecture. The palace itself was built by Mehmet the Conqueror in the 15th century and has been the residence of Ottoman Sultans for over 400 years. The palace is a vast complex of richly decorated courtyards and rooms. The palace features a Harem, the Imperial Treasury room, the Imperial Council Chamber, the Second Court, the Third Court (the Sultan’s private rooms) and the Palace Kitchens. The palace became an UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1985 and has been described as “one of the best examples of palaces of the Ottoman period”.
Tourists can enjoy a wide range of shopping centres and bazaars such as the Grand Bazaar, the Egyptian bazaar and many modern shopping malls all around Istanbul.
Things to Know
● Tourists arriving in Istanbul will be required to purchase a tourist Visa – the procedure can be easily done online or at a visa machine before the immigration section of the airport. The Visa costs around 20 USD.
● There are 3 main airports in Istanbul. Hazerfen Airport is a private airport with limited traffic. Atatürk Airport is located on the European side of Istanbul and Sabiha Gökçen Airport is located on the Asian side of Istanbul. Usually planes land at the Atatürk Airport (IATA:IST) which is just 20 km from the city centre. From there a visitor can take a taxi to Taksim Square for around TRY60. Tourists can also use a local airport service called Havataş which runs express bus services every 30 minutes for around TRY11 to Taksim Square and Aksaray.
● Food and drink at the airport is quite expensive and may cost 4 times more than in the city. It is advisable to bring your own meals from the town if you have a lot of waiting to do at the airport. There is also a supermarket close to the airport metro entrance where you can buy reasonably priced food and drink.
● You can change any sort of currency into the Turkish Lira (TRY) just about anywhere across Istanbul. Most shops and supermarkets also accept credit cards for payment.
● Roaming fees in Turkey are expensive, but you can simply buy a new SIM card when you reach Istanbul and use it for the duration of your stay.
● Istanbul has a humid subtropical climate, so the summer months are generally warm and in winter temperatures differ from place to place.
Blepharoplasty surgery, also known as eyelid surgery is a type of plastic surgery used by men and women from all around the world to correct certain defects, disfigurations or deformities of the eyelids. Eyelid surgery can also be used to aesthetically enhance the eyes region, giving it a more youthful appearance.
During blepharoplasty surgery, the surgeon can remove excess skin and excess fatty tissue but in the same time strengthen the muscle and tendons from the eyes region.
Eyelid Surgery Candidates
Blepharoplasty surgery or eyelid surgery is recommended for patients with loose skin in the eyes region, droopy upper eye lids, bags under their eyes or simply patients who wish to rejuvenate their facial appearance.
Am I Suitable for Eyelid Surgery?
Eyelid surgery, also called blepharoplasty is not recommended for patients suffering from one or more of the following:
● Dry eye syndrome
● Detached retina
● Cardiovascular disease
Preparing for Eyelid Surgery
Patients should avoid smoking for at least a month before and after going in for blepharoplasty surgery. Blood thinners, herbal teas and vitamins are prohibited at least 2 weeks before the eyelid surgery. These measures are taken in order to limit potential side effects such as bruising and swelling during the blepharoplasty surgery recovery period but also to ensure the results of the procedure.
How is Eyelid Surgery Performed?
Blepharoplasty surgery or eyelid surgery can be performed under local or general anesthesia. The surgeon will decide on the type of anesthesia used after the patient’s first examination.
Once the anesthesia kicks in, the surgeon will begin creating incisions according to the patient’s needs. Incisions are usually created in the eyelid creases in order to make them less visible after surgery – just below the lashes for the lower eyelids and in the creases of the upper eyelids.
Once the incisions are created, the surgeon begins eliminating excess skin, muscle and fatty tissue from the area. Pockets of fat under the lower eyelids can be removed through incisions made on the inside of the eyelid. Once the excess fat and skin are removed, the muscle itself can be tightened for a better effect. The incisions are then closed with fine sutures and the eyelid surgery recovery period can begin.
Eyelid Surgery Summary
Local or General anesthetic
Usually overnight stay is not required
Back to Sports
2 - 3 weeks
Duration of Operation
1 to 3 hours
Back to Work
1 to 2 weeks
Eyelid Surgery Recovery
The blepharoplasty surgery recovery period lasts around 2 weeks. Alcohol consumption is prohibited for at least 2 days before and after the blepharoplasty surgery. Patients can use water or a special type of gel to keep their eyes region clean during the blepharoplasty surgery recovery period. Eye drops can be used by patients with dry eyes. Steri-strips may also be used during the blepharoplasty surgery recovery period, in order to provide better support to the eyelids. In around 3 to 5 days the sutures are removed and in around a week the patient may begin using makeup around the eyes.
Eyelid Surgery Risks and Complications
Blepharoplasty complications can include:
● Over removal of fatty tissue
Eyelid Surgery Side Effects
Patients can experience some pain, swelling and bruising during the blepharoplasty surgery recovery period. Cold compresses can help reduce swelling and bruising. Painkillers can also be used to soothe discomfort. Other side effects can include: an increase in sensitivity to light, teary eyes, dry eyes, itching sensation in the eyes region after eyelid surgery.
Eyelid Surgery Success Rates
The average blepharoplasty surgery success rate is over 95%, with 97% of patients recommending this procedure to family or friends.
Before and After Eyelid Surgery
Blepharoplasty surgery results last around 10 to 15 years, but some patients may require revision surgery during this period.