Oncology is one of the branches of medicine, focused on tumours and cancer treatment. Cancer is a disease, in which body cells began to mutate and pose a threat to one’s health or even life. There are different types of cancer, such as lung cancer, leukemia, brain cancer, liver cancer, prostate cancer, breast cancer and soft tissue cancers such as various sarcomas.
The history of oncology in its modern form is quite short but people have observed tumors and cancers for thousands of years, often describing only those types which were visible on the outside. The term “oncology” comes from Galen, who used the Greek word ‘oncos’ (swelling) to describe tumors of all kind and ‘cancer’ (crab) for their malignant forms. Up until 19th century, people used Greek and Roman cancer treatments based on “humours” with close to no effect, since the knowledge of cells was non-existent. The advent of microscope use in medicine, as well as the discovery of radiation by Marie Curie-Skłodowska, had an important contribution to the development of oncology and cancer treatments.
Oncology employs many cancer treatment techniques. Oncology surgery is used when there is a chance of cancer removal. Therefore it is usually performed in early cancer stages when it didn’t spread to other body parts through the process of metastasis. In later cancer stages, oncology doctor conducts usually chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy. Chemotherapy treatment means utilisation of powerful drugs in cancer treatment. Those drugs are strong enough to kill cancer cells but can also cause a lot of collateral damage in the patient’s body. In radiation therapy, oncologists use radiation as an effective cancer treatment. Radiation may be emitted by a machine (external radiation therapy) or injected/swallowed (internal radiation therapy). However, these aren’t all options of oncology treatment. Apart from cancer surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy, there are new, experimental therapies: gene therapies, targeted therapies, and others, which bring even brighter future for cancer patients.
Nobody has delusions that only elder people become cancer patients anymore. Seemingly, perfectly healthy young people may have a tumor or early cancer stages in their body without knowing it. That’s why it is so important to react to all cancer symptoms without hesitation. Especially skin cancers such as melanomas or soft tissue cancers become visible with time, allowing for rather quick identification and successful cancer treatment.
Due to the development of medical tourism, many patients decide for cancer treatment abroad. In some countries, more advanced therapies are not refunded and cancer patients are willing to pay on their own to get the best oncology treatment possible. One of the trends among patients from Western Europe and the US is to look for a cancer hospital in India, where cancer treatment costs are relatively low and affordable. However, closer to Europe there are other health tourism destinations which offer comparable cancer care for the similar price. Since chemotherapy and radiation therapy cost might be too expensive in the most popular oncology centers in the world, such as USA, Australia, and the UK, people prefer to go alternative medical tourism destinations where they can find affordable costs and quality cancer treatment. For example, chemotherapy cost in Turkey or in India is quite affordable. For instance, Turkey for years enjoys a good opinion for its top-end clinics and specialists. Also, India has welcomed so many international patients in the recent years.
Most Common Cancer Treatments Abroad
Turkey is a treasure trove of traditions, spices, street food delights and destinations for any intrepid tourist. It’s a mix between the familiar and the exotic, ranging from the bustling streets of Istanbul to the serene and relaxed Roman ruins spread around Turkey’s Western and Southern coast. Turkey is a fairly large country with 75 million inhabitants. The country spreads between Europe and Asia, with 97% of the country on the Asian side – Asian Turkey. Turkey is encircled and enjoys access to three different seas: The Black Sea, The Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean. Istanbul is the largest city in Turkey and the largest city in Europe, regarding population – It has over 14 million people.
Turkey’s medical infrastructure has improved greatly beginning with the early 2000s and now is one of the biggest medical tourism hubs in Europe and Asia. Turkey has the largest number of JCI-accredited hospitals, second only to the USA and hospitals are more often than not part of international healthcare groups, following strict European protocols and regulations. Turkey has 28.000 medical institutions spread across the European and Asian side but some of the biggest private hospitals and medical centres are in Istanbul, Ankara, Antalya and Bodrum – these also happen to be some of the best tourist destinations in Turkey.
Bodrum is one of the most popular tourist destinations in Turkey, with its sandy beaches and small streets littered with traditional shops and elegant restaurants. The town used to be called Halicarnassus, and the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus is one of the World’s Seven Ancient Wonders. Bodrum also features a castle built by the crusaders in the 15th century.
Istanbul is the home of several architectural treasures, including the Blue Mosque. The Blue Mosque was built on the orders of Sultan Ahmed between 1609 and 1616 and the Sultan’s body still resides within the mosque. The high ceiling is lined with more than 20000 handmade ceramic tiles, hence the name – The Blue Mosque.
Pamukkale, meaning “The Cotton Castle” in Turkish is a surreal destination in the country’s western region of Denizli, world renowned for its white terraces with warm spring water. The ancient Greek city of Hierapolis was built over the springs and Pamukkale was a renowned destination in antiquity as well. Tourists can visit the ancient Roman and Greek ruins of the baths, temples and theatres dating to the second century BC.
● If you don’t feel like waiting in a queue, you can get a VISA for Turkey online. The VISA usually costs around $20 for US travellers.
● Turkey’s population is predominantly Islamic so it’s a good idea to wear a headscarf while visiting mosques. Shorts or any other garments that fit under the knee are not prohibited by law but it’s considered good etiquette not to wear shorts for men or short skirts for women.
● You can change any sort of currency into the Turkish Lira – the Turkish currency just about everywhere. Most supermarkets and shops also accept credit cards.
● Roaming fees in Turkey can be somewhat expensive, so it’s a good idea to simply buy a new Turkish SIM card and use it while staying in Turkey.
● Turkey’s international calling code is +90.
● Electrical installations usually operate on 220 volts, 50 Hz and use European style plugs and European style sockets. Four and Five star hotels usually provide North American - 120 volts, 60 Hz sockets as well.
● Driving in Turkey can be a hassle sometimes, but very pleasurable at other times. Roads are usually in good shape and some roads actually lack traffic, so it can be a relaxing experience. In Turkey, people drive on the right, so that’s a detail you will need to keep in mind. In some areas, villagers made cardboard and marker pen signs in order to help lost tourist on their way.
● Renting a car in Turkey is quite simple and cheap. If you have the budget for a full insurance, you should definitely take it – if anything happens, at least you won’t have to worry about money.
● The Turkish Airlines Company, THY offers destinations to just about anywhere in the world with a total of 261 destinations. The company was founded in 1933 and features 285 passenger and cargo planes.
● Turkey uses the metric system which is easy enough to understand – 1 Km = 1000 meters, 1 Kg = 1000 grams, and so on. One mile equals 1.60 Km.
● Turkish people are warm and very hospitable - It is customary for people to hug and kiss both cheeks regardless of their gender.
● Turkish street food is very diverse, from the simple bagel-type snack Simit to the familiar pizza-type Lahmacun, there are tons of variants to just about anything.
● Turkish coffee is world renowned, but it’s also a bit different than say, its American counterpart - It is usually a strong coffee with a rich aroma, served very hot from a small traditional cup. Be careful not to drink any of the coffee grounds still in the cup.
● Turkish delight, as the name suggests, can be a really sweet delight for tourists. It is made from sugar, starch and just about any fruit or aroma imaginable, including walnuts, hazelnuts, pistachios, dates, lemon, orange, rosewater and many others. Turkish delight is usually served with coffee and it became popular all around the world, including in the Balkans region and as far as Brazil and North America.