Istanbul is the biggest city in Turkey and In Europe, according to population – it has over 14 million inhabitants. Istanbul is Turkey’s financial, cultural and healthcare hub – it’s the city with the most JCI accredited private hospitals. The city spreads on both sides of the Bosphorus – The strait that divides the Marmara Sea and the Black Sea. Istanbul also connects Europe to Asia forming a very interesting mix, both gastronomically and culturally.
Over 11 million tourists visited Istanbul in 2012, making it the fifth most popular tourist destination in the world.
Sights to See
The Blue Mosque
The Sultan Ahmed Mosque, also called the Blue Mosque incorporates Islamic architecture and Byzantine Christian elements in its design. It is considered to be the last great mosque of the classical period. The Mosque got its name from the 20,000 Iznik blue ceramic tiles used to line its interiors. The Blue Mosque is also the final resting place of Sultan Ahmed which commissioned the building in 1609, with work finishing in 1616.
The Basilica Cistern is one of the most popular tourist sites in Istanbul. The Cistern is huge, with a total of 336 columns arranged in 12 rows. It was built in order to store water during the Byzantine time – in the 6th century. Most of the columns feature decorative carvings, as they were re-used from other classical-age structures. Some of the most interesting columns on the site are the Medusa stones, in the north-west corner of the Cistern.
Topkapı Palace is one of the finest examples of Islamic art and architecture. The palace itself was built by Mehmet the Conqueror in the 15th century and has been the residence of Ottoman Sultans for over 400 years. The palace is a vast complex of richly decorated courtyards and rooms. The palace features a Harem, the Imperial Treasury room, the Imperial Council Chamber, the Second Court, the Third Court (the Sultan’s private rooms) and the Palace Kitchens. The palace became an UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1985 and has been described as “one of the best examples of palaces of the Ottoman period”.
Tourists can enjoy a wide range of shopping centres and bazaars such as the Grand Bazaar, the Egyptian bazaar and many modern shopping malls all around Istanbul.
Things to Know
● Tourists arriving in Istanbul will be required to purchase a tourist Visa – the procedure can be easily done online or at a visa machine before the immigration section of the airport. The Visa costs around 20 USD.
● There are 3 main airports in Istanbul. Hazerfen Airport is a private airport with limited traffic. Atatürk Airport is located on the European side of Istanbul and Sabiha Gökçen Airport is located on the Asian side of Istanbul. Usually planes land at the Atatürk Airport (IATA:IST) which is just 20 km from the city centre. From there a visitor can take a taxi to Taksim Square for around TRY60. Tourists can also use a local airport service called Havataş which runs express bus services every 30 minutes for around TRY11 to Taksim Square and Aksaray.
● Food and drink at the airport is quite expensive and may cost 4 times more than in the city. It is advisable to bring your own meals from the town if you have a lot of waiting to do at the airport. There is also a supermarket close to the airport metro entrance where you can buy reasonably priced food and drink.
● You can change any sort of currency into the Turkish Lira (TRY) just about anywhere across Istanbul. Most shops and supermarkets also accept credit cards for payment.
● Roaming fees in Turkey are expensive, but you can simply buy a new SIM card when you reach Istanbul and use it for the duration of your stay.
● Istanbul has a humid subtropical climate, so the summer months are generally warm and in winter temperatures differ from place to place.
Dental veneers refers to the process of placing a very thin layer of material (often porcelain) over a tooth in order to protect it or to aesthetically enhance it. Veneers for teeth are usually made out of a special composite material or porcelain, with the latter being the norm in dental clinics worldwide.
Porcelain veneers tend to last anywhere between 10 and 30 years but in some cases they may need replacing due to damage, decay, cracking, chipping or discolouration. The lifespan of a porcelain veneer also depends on the type of bonding agent or dental cement used to place it on the tooth. The dentist should inform the patient thoroughly on how to maintain veneers for teeth, once the procedure is complete.
A veneers procedure is a good choice for individuals with discoloured, chipped, uneven, cracked and even slightly misaligned teeth.
Am I Suitable for Veneers?
Patients that tend to grind their teeth during the night should take precautions after a porcelain veneers procedure – wearing a night guard is mandatory for some individuals, as the grinding can damage the veneers.
Preparing for Veneers
A dental veneers procedure does not require extensive preparations – it is a simple and safe procedure.
How is Veneers Performed?
A dental veneers process needs to be divided into three separate appointments, two days apart.
In the first one the dentist will begin preparing the patient’s teeth for the porcelain veneers – 3-5 mm from the front of the teeth’s enamel is removed by the dentist by the use of a small drill. A mould is then taken and temporary veneers are placed.
In the second appointment, the dentist will test the new dental veneers on the patient’s teeth and make adjustments, if they are necessary.
In the last appointment, the surface of the patient’s teeth is roughened up so that the porcelain veneers can bind better to them. The veneers are placed and a binding agent is used to cement them in place.
Veneers Risks and Complications
A porcelain veneers procedure is a simple and safe cosmetic dentistry technique used in dental clinics from all around the world but there are certain considerations which need to be considered. Dental veneers complications are rare, but they can include:
● Increased sensitivity of the teeth
● The veneers can get damaged from a wide range of reasons – they will need to be replaced
● Placement issues
● Colour irregularities between the porcelain veneers and natural teeth – smoking can affect the color of nearby teeth, making the veneers seem whiter by comparison.
Veneers Side Effects
Some patients may feel discomfort and some pain during the procedure. Veneers teeth tend to be sensitive for a few days.
Veneers Success Rates
A survey based on 84 porcelain veneers reviews sets the survival probability and satisfaction rate of dental veneers at 93.5%, 10 years after the procedure is done.
Before and After Veneers
Veneers-teeth, when done properly, are indistinguishable from the patient’s natural teeth. Given their long lifespan and accessible price, porcelain veneers are an excellent choice for any individual who wishes to improve their smile. Patients can ask for veneers before and after pictures before traveling abroad for treatment.