Oncology is one of the subjects of medicine, that is concerned with
Istanbul is the biggest city in Turkey and In Europe, according to population – it has over 14 million inhabitants. Istanbul is Turkey’s financial, cultural and healthcare hub – it’s the city with the most JCI accredited private hospitals. The city spreads on both sides of the Bosphorus – The strait that divides the Marmara Sea and the Black Sea. Istanbul also connects Europe to Asia forming a very interesting mix, both gastronomically and culturally.
Over 11 million tourists visited Istanbul in 2012, making it the fifth most popular tourist destination in the world.
The Blue Mosque
The Sultan Ahmed Mosque, also called the Blue Mosque incorporates Islamic architecture and Byzantine Christian elements in its design. It is considered to be the last great mosque of the classical period. The Mosque got its name from the 20,000 Iznik blue ceramic tiles used to line its interiors. The Blue Mosque is also the final resting place of Sultan Ahmed which commissioned the building in 1609, with work finishing in 1616.
The Basilica Cistern is one of the most popular tourist sites in Istanbul. The Cistern is huge, with a total of 336 columns arranged in 12 rows. It was built in order to store water during the Byzantine time – in the 6th century. Most of the columns feature decorative carvings, as they were re-used from other classical-age structures. Some of the most interesting columns on the site are the Medusa stones, in the north-west corner of the Cistern.
Topkapı Palace is one of the finest examples of Islamic art and architecture. The palace itself was built by Mehmet the Conqueror in the 15th century and has been the residence of Ottoman Sultans for over 400 years. The palace is a vast complex of richly decorated courtyards and rooms. The palace features a Harem, the Imperial Treasury room, the Imperial Council Chamber, the Second Court, the Third Court (the Sultan’s private rooms) and the Palace Kitchens. The palace became an UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1985 and has been described as “one of the best examples of palaces of the Ottoman period”.
Tourists can enjoy a wide range of shopping centres and bazaars such as the Grand Bazaar, the Egyptian bazaar and many modern shopping malls all around Istanbul.
● Tourists arriving in Istanbul will be required to purchase a tourist Visa – the procedure can be easily done online or at a visa machine before the immigration section of the airport. The Visa costs around 20 USD.
● There are 3 main airports in Istanbul. Hazerfen Airport is a private airport with limited traffic. Atatürk Airport is located on the European side of Istanbul and Sabiha Gökçen Airport is located on the Asian side of Istanbul. Usually planes land at the Atatürk Airport (IATA:IST) which is just 20 km from the city centre. From there a visitor can take a taxi to Taksim Square for around TRY60. Tourists can also use a local airport service called Havataş which runs express bus services every 30 minutes for around TRY11 to Taksim Square and Aksaray.
● Food and drink at the airport is quite expensive and may cost 4 times more than in the city. It is advisable to bring your own meals from the town if you have a lot of waiting to do at the airport. There is also a supermarket close to the airport metro entrance where you can buy reasonably priced food and drink.
● You can change any sort of currency into the Turkish Lira (TRY) just about anywhere across Istanbul. Most shops and supermarkets also accept credit cards for payment.
● Roaming fees in Turkey are expensive, but you can simply buy a new SIM card when you reach Istanbul and use it for the duration of your stay.
● Istanbul has a humid subtropical climate, so the summer months are generally warm and in winter temperatures differ from place to place.
Oncology is one of the subjects of medicine, that is concerned with tumors and cancer treatment. Cancer is the medical condition, in which body cells start to mutate and become risky for the patient’s health or life. There are many kinds of cancer, involving lung cancer, leukemia, brain cancer, liver cancer, prostate cancer, breast cancer and soft tissue cancers such as various sarcomas.
The history of oncology is very brief in its modern form, but people have been observing tumors and cancer for thousands of years. They only described the kinds that can be seen from outside. The term “oncology” comes from Galen, who used the Greek word ‘oncos’ (swelling) to describe tumors of all kind and ‘cancer’ (crab) for their malignant forms. Up until the 19th century, people used Greek and Roman cancer treatments, they were mainly based on “humors” which had almost no effect. The reason for that is the fact they lacked knowledge of cells. The advent of microscope uses in medicine, as well as the discovery of radiation by Marie Curie-Skłodowska, had an important contribution to the development of oncology and cancer treatments.
Oncology involves different types of treatment methods. Oncology operation is performed only when there is a chance for the removal of cancer. So, the surgery is generally performed in the early stages of cancer when cancer has not spread to other parts of the patient’s body via metastasis. However, in later stages, the doctor performs chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy. Chemotherapy treatment involves the use of strong drugs during the treatment. These drugs used in the treatment kill cancer cells, but they can cause collateral damage in the patient’s body as well. During radiation therapy, radiation is used by doctors for effective cancer treatment. Radiation may be emitted by a machine (external radiation therapy) or injected/swallowed (internal radiation therapy). However, these treatment techniques are not all the alternatives for oncology treatment. Apart from these treatment techniques, there are novel, experimental therapies as well such as gene therapies, targeted therapies, etc. which bring even a brighter future for cancer patients.
It is thought that only the elder patients suffer from cancer, but the truth is seemingly healthy young people might have a tumor or suffer from early stages of cancer as well. Therefore, it is very important to pay attention to all cancer symptoms. Specifically, skin cancers such as melanomas or soft tissue cancers are usually noticeable with time, allowing for rather quick identification and successful cancer treatment.
Because of the growth of medical tourism, many patients choose to get their treatment abroad. In some countries, more advanced therapies are not refunded, and the patients want to pay themselves to get the best treatment for cancer. It is popular among patients from Western Europe and the US to get treatment in India, where the costs of cancer treatment are low and cheaper. However, closer to Europe there are other health tourism destinations that offer comparable cancer care for a similar price. The cost of chemotherapy and radiation therapy can be very expensive in some of the most popular oncology institutions in the world, such as USA, Australia, and the UK, the patients choose to go to other alternative medical tourism destinations where the costs of treatments are more affordable. For instance, the cost of chemotherapy is very cheap in Turkey and India. For example, Turkey attracts patients with its top-end clinics and doctors. Also, India has welcomed so many international patients in recent years.
Most Common Cancer Treatments Abroad
This content is written and reviewed by our medical content team in October, 2019.