Bone marrow transplantation, also known as hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is a surgical procedure where healthy cells from the marrow,
Turkey is a treasure trove of traditions, spices, street food delights and destinations for any intrepid tourist. It’s a mix between the familiar and the exotic, ranging from the bustling streets of Istanbul to the serene and relaxed Roman ruins spread around Turkey’s Western and Southern coast. Turkey is a fairly large country with 75 million inhabitants. The country spreads between Europe and Asia, with 97% of the country on the Asian side – Asian Turkey. Turkey is encircled and enjoys access to three different seas: The Black Sea, The Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean. Istanbul is the largest city in Turkey and the largest city in Europe, regarding population – It has over 14 million people.
Turkey’s medical infrastructure has improved greatly beginning with the early 2000s and now is one of the biggest medical tourism hubs in Europe and Asia. Turkey has the largest number of JCI-accredited hospitals, second only to the USA and hospitals are more often than not part of international healthcare groups, following strict European protocols and regulations. Turkey has 28.000 medical institutions spread across the European and Asian side but some of the biggest private hospitals and medical centres are in Istanbul, Ankara, Antalya and Bodrum – these also happen to be some of the best tourist destinations in Turkey.
Bodrum is one of the most popular tourist destinations in Turkey, with its sandy beaches and small streets littered with traditional shops and elegant restaurants. The town used to be called Halicarnassus, and the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus is one of the World’s Seven Ancient Wonders. Bodrum also features a castle built by the crusaders in the 15th century.
Istanbul is the home of several architectural treasures, including the Blue Mosque. The Blue Mosque was built on the orders of Sultan Ahmed between 1609 and 1616 and the Sultan’s body still resides within the mosque. The high ceiling is lined with more than 20000 handmade ceramic tiles, hence the name – The Blue Mosque.
Pamukkale, meaning “The Cotton Castle” in Turkish is a surreal destination in the country’s western region of Denizli, world renowned for its white terraces with warm spring water. The ancient Greek city of Hierapolis was built over the springs and Pamukkale was a renowned destination in antiquity as well. Tourists can visit the ancient Roman and Greek ruins of the baths, temples and theatres dating to the second century BC.
● If you don’t feel like waiting in a queue, you can get a VISA for Turkey online. The VISA usually costs around $20 for US travellers.
● Turkey’s population is predominantly Islamic so it’s a good idea to wear a headscarf while visiting mosques. Shorts or any other garments that fit under the knee are not prohibited by law but it’s considered good etiquette not to wear shorts for men or short skirts for women.
● You can change any sort of currency into the Turkish Lira – the Turkish currency just about everywhere. Most supermarkets and shops also accept credit cards.
● Roaming fees in Turkey can be somewhat expensive, so it’s a good idea to simply buy a new Turkish SIM card and use it while staying in Turkey.
● Turkey’s international calling code is +90.
● Electrical installations usually operate on 220 volts, 50 Hz and use European style plugs and European style sockets. Four and Five star hotels usually provide North American - 120 volts, 60 Hz sockets as well.
● Driving in Turkey can be a hassle sometimes, but very pleasurable at other times. Roads are usually in good shape and some roads actually lack traffic, so it can be a relaxing experience. In Turkey, people drive on the right, so that’s a detail you will need to keep in mind. In some areas, villagers made cardboard and marker pen signs in order to help lost tourist on their way.
● Renting a car in Turkey is quite simple and cheap. If you have the budget for a full insurance, you should definitely take it – if anything happens, at least you won’t have to worry about money.
● The Turkish Airlines Company, THY offers destinations to just about anywhere in the world with a total of 261 destinations. The company was founded in 1933 and features 285 passenger and cargo planes.
● Turkey uses the metric system which is easy enough to understand – 1 Km = 1000 meters, 1 Kg = 1000 grams, and so on. One mile equals 1.60 Km.
● Turkish people are warm and very hospitable - It is customary for people to hug and kiss both cheeks regardless of their gender.
● Turkish street food is very diverse, from the simple bagel-type snack Simit to the familiar pizza-type Lahmacun, there are tons of variants to just about anything.
● Turkish coffee is world renowned, but it’s also a bit different than say, its American counterpart - It is usually a strong coffee with a rich aroma, served very hot from a small traditional cup. Be careful not to drink any of the coffee grounds still in the cup.
● Turkish delight, as the name suggests, can be a really sweet delight for tourists. It is made from sugar, starch and just about any fruit or aroma imaginable, including walnuts, hazelnuts, pistachios, dates, lemon, orange, rosewater and many others. Turkish delight is usually served with coffee and it became popular all around the world, including in the Balkans region and as far as Brazil and North America.
Bone marrow transplantation, also known as hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is a surgical procedure where healthy cells from the marrow, are infused into another patient’s diseased or damaged bone marrow. Bone marrow transplantation can also be used to treat patients suffering from certain types of cancer.
There are two main types of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation:
● Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant – The bone marrow is harvested from the patient’s own body and injected where it is needed
● Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant – The cells are harvested from a donor
Bone marrow transplantation is mainly used to help patients that:
● Need high doses of radiation or chemotherapy
● Need to replace damaged or diseased marrow
● Need new healthy stem cells which can kill cancer cells directly, without other treatments
A bone marrow transplant procedure is recommended for patients suffering from:
● Acute leukemia
● Aplastic anemia
● Chronic leukemia
● Hodgkin's lymphoma
● Inborn errors of metabolism
● Plasma cell disorders
● Immune deficiencies
● And others
Bone marrow transplantation is not recommended for patients in the final stages of cancer. The patient needs to be in a good state of health for this procedure. The bone marrow transplant procedure is usually performed when the disease is in remission.
The patient will need to be submitted to hospital a few days before the bone marrow transplant is set to begin. A special tube is inserted into one of the patient’s larger veins in the chest area. This tube is essential for the bone marrow transplant procedure, which will be performed later.
Blood samples are collected through the tube and the patient will be administered certain necessary drugs. Large doses of Chemotherapy are then administered to the patient. Sometimes radiation is also used. Chemotherapy is used to destroy diseased or damaged stem cells in the marrow. The chemotherapy also ensures that the patient won’t reject the new stem cells when they are infused into the body. Once these steps are performed, the actual bone marrow transplant procedure can begin.
The hematopoietic stem cell transplantation procedure can be divided into two separate stages:
General anaesthesia is administered to the patient or donor. The doctor will then introduce a needle deep into the hip bone and extract the marrow into a syringe. The sternum can also be used to harvest marrow. The doctor will proceed to repeat the process until around a litre of marrow is harvested – the marrow will then be subjected to chemotherapy if it is harvested from the patient and not a separate donor. This will ensure that the marrow is fully healthy.
The procedure usually lasts about an hour. The marrow will then regenerate in a few weeks.
The transplant stage of the bone marrow transplant procedure is very similar to a blood transfusion. The patient’s pre-inserted tube is used to inject the bone marrow cells directly into the bloodstream. Once these cells are injected, they will slowly find their way to the patient’s own bone marrow and begin producing platelets, white blood cells and red blood cells.
The transplant usually lasts about an hour. Some patients may feel nausea or headaches during this stage of the bone marrow transplant.
The bone marrow transplant recovery period is different for donors and recipients. The average donor can return to normal activities and work in 1 to 7 days. The marrow will regenerate in a few weeks.
The recovery time for the recipient is much longer, between 6 and 12 months. Most complications occur in the first 100 days after the bone marrow transplant procedure.
Bone marrow transplant complications can include:
● Graft failure
● Graft vs host disease
● Serious infection following chemotherapy
Bone marrow transplant side effects can include:
● Intestinal cramps
● Hair loss
● Skin rashes
The average bone marrow transplant success rate is 69% for patients with an unrelated donor and 79% for patients with a related donor.
Around 85% of patients that underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation improve their life expectancy by 10 or more years.