Kidney transplantation, also known as a renal transplant or kidney transplant procedure is a type of organ transplant where a healthy
Istanbul is the biggest city in Turkey and In Europe, according to population – it has over 14 million inhabitants. Istanbul is Turkey’s financial, cultural and healthcare hub – it’s the city with the most JCI accredited private hospitals. The city spreads on both sides of the Bosphorus – The strait that divides the Marmara Sea and the Black Sea. Istanbul also connects Europe to Asia forming a very interesting mix, both gastronomically and culturally.
Over 11 million tourists visited Istanbul in 2012, making it the fifth most popular tourist destination in the world.
The Blue Mosque
The Sultan Ahmed Mosque, also called the Blue Mosque incorporates Islamic architecture and Byzantine Christian elements in its design. It is considered to be the last great mosque of the classical period. The Mosque got its name from the 20,000 Iznik blue ceramic tiles used to line its interiors. The Blue Mosque is also the final resting place of Sultan Ahmed which commissioned the building in 1609, with work finishing in 1616.
The Basilica Cistern is one of the most popular tourist sites in Istanbul. The Cistern is huge, with a total of 336 columns arranged in 12 rows. It was built in order to store water during the Byzantine time – in the 6th century. Most of the columns feature decorative carvings, as they were re-used from other classical-age structures. Some of the most interesting columns on the site are the Medusa stones, in the north-west corner of the Cistern.
Topkapı Palace is one of the finest examples of Islamic art and architecture. The palace itself was built by Mehmet the Conqueror in the 15th century and has been the residence of Ottoman Sultans for over 400 years. The palace is a vast complex of richly decorated courtyards and rooms. The palace features a Harem, the Imperial Treasury room, the Imperial Council Chamber, the Second Court, the Third Court (the Sultan’s private rooms) and the Palace Kitchens. The palace became an UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1985 and has been described as “one of the best examples of palaces of the Ottoman period”.
Tourists can enjoy a wide range of shopping centres and bazaars such as the Grand Bazaar, the Egyptian bazaar and many modern shopping malls all around Istanbul.
● Tourists arriving in Istanbul will be required to purchase a tourist Visa – the procedure can be easily done online or at a visa machine before the immigration section of the airport. The Visa costs around 20 USD.
● There are 3 main airports in Istanbul. Hazerfen Airport is a private airport with limited traffic. Atatürk Airport is located on the European side of Istanbul and Sabiha Gökçen Airport is located on the Asian side of Istanbul. Usually planes land at the Atatürk Airport (IATA:IST) which is just 20 km from the city centre. From there a visitor can take a taxi to Taksim Square for around TRY60. Tourists can also use a local airport service called Havataş which runs express bus services every 30 minutes for around TRY11 to Taksim Square and Aksaray.
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● Roaming fees in Turkey are expensive, but you can simply buy a new SIM card when you reach Istanbul and use it for the duration of your stay.
● Istanbul has a humid subtropical climate, so the summer months are generally warm and in winter temperatures differ from place to place.
Kidney transplantation, also known as a renal transplant or kidney transplant procedure is a type of organ transplant where a healthy kidney from a healthy donor is transplanted into a patient with an end-stage renal disease.
There are two types of renal transplant:
● Cadaveric renal transplant – the kidney transplant procedure is done with a deceased donor
● Living donor kidney transplantation – the kidney transplant procedure is done with a living donor, usually a member of the recipient’s family.
Although many recipients usually receive kidneys from family members, the donor does not necessarily have to be biologically related to the receiver. Renal transplant requirements are simple:
The donor and receiver need to have compatible an ABO blood group and a compatible HLA (Human Leukocyte Antigen) system.
A Kidney transplant procedure, also known as a renal transplant is recommended for patients suffering from an end-stage renal disease.
There is a wide range of medical conditions that can lead to an end-stage renal disease, including:
● Malignant hypertension
● Diabetes mellitus
● Polycystic kidney disease
Diabetes is the most common cause of the end-stage liver disease. Approximately 25% of renal transplant patients suffer from diabetes.
A kidney transplant procedure is not recommended for patients suffering from a liver disease, heart disease or lung disease. Kidney transplantation is not recommended for heavy smokers or patients suffering from morbid obesity, as they are at a higher risk of developing complications from the kidney transplant procedure.
Patients need to stop smoking before the kidney transplantation procedure. Blood thinners need to be avoided. Some patients may be required to lose weight before the renal transplant can begin.
The kidney transplant procedure is done under general anaesthesia. Kidney transplantation usually takes 3 or 4 hours to complete. The surgeon will create an incision in the abdomen region and then will begin connecting the donor kidney to the veins and arteries in the recipient’s lower abdomen. The ureter will then be connected from the donor kidney to the recipient’s bladder. Once the new kidney gets a steady supply of blood and is connected to the bladder, it will start functioning immediately, producing urine. The incision site is then closed with stitches and the patient may begin the kidney transplant recovery period.
5 to 7 days
3 to 4 hours
During the kidney transplant recovery period, the patient will be administered immunosuppressant drugs, which stops the receiver’s immune system from rejecting the new kidney. Patients usually stay between 5 and 7 days in the hospital. The new kidney will start working at maximum capacity around 5 to 10 days after the renal transplant.
Patients need to avoid green teas, pomegranate or grapefruit as these foods are known to have a negative interaction with the kidney transplantation procedure.
Kidney transplant complications can include:
● Ulceration of the stomach
● Gastrointestinal inflammation
● Transplant rejection – chronic, acute or hyperacute
Kidney transplant rejection occurs in 10 to 15% of renal transplant patients during the first 2 months after the kidney transplant procedure. In this case, medications adjustments or alternative treatments are required.
Patients can expect pain, discomfort, a feeling of weakness after renal transplant surgery. The patient’s immune system will need to be suppressed and this can lead to other medical problems.
Kidney transplantation surgery has a 90% success rate, 5 years after the renal transplant is performed.
Kidney transplantation can extend the life of individuals suffering from an end-stage renal disease. Renal transplant patients usually live 10 to 15 years longer than patients kept on dialysis. Generally speaking, younger kidney transplantation patients enjoy a greater increase in longevity. Individuals usually have more energy, enjoy less restricted diets and suffer from fewer medical complications after a kidney transplant procedure.