Istanbul is the biggest city in Turkey and In Europe, according to population – it has over 14 million inhabitants. Istanbul is Turkey’s financial, cultural and healthcare hub – it’s the city with the most JCI accredited private hospitals. The city spreads on both sides of the Bosphorus – The strait that divides the Marmara Sea and the Black Sea. Istanbul also connects Europe to Asia forming a very interesting mix, both gastronomically and culturally.
Over 11 million tourists visited Istanbul in 2012, making it the fifth most popular tourist destination in the world.
The Blue Mosque
The Sultan Ahmed Mosque, also called the Blue Mosque incorporates Islamic architecture and Byzantine Christian elements in its design. It is considered to be the last great mosque of the classical period. The Mosque got its name from the 20,000 Iznik blue ceramic tiles used to line its interiors. The Blue Mosque is also the final resting place of Sultan Ahmed which commissioned the building in 1609, with work finishing in 1616.
The Basilica Cistern is one of the most popular tourist sites in Istanbul. The Cistern is huge, with a total of 336 columns arranged in 12 rows. It was built in order to store water during the Byzantine time – in the 6th century. Most of the columns feature decorative carvings, as they were re-used from other classical-age structures. Some of the most interesting columns on the site are the Medusa stones, in the north-west corner of the Cistern.
Topkapı Palace is one of the finest examples of Islamic art and architecture. The palace itself was built by Mehmet the Conqueror in the 15th century and has been the residence of Ottoman Sultans for over 400 years. The palace is a vast complex of richly decorated courtyards and rooms. The palace features a Harem, the Imperial Treasury room, the Imperial Council Chamber, the Second Court, the Third Court (the Sultan’s private rooms) and the Palace Kitchens. The palace became an UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1985 and has been described as “one of the best examples of palaces of the Ottoman period”.
Tourists can enjoy a wide range of shopping centres and bazaars such as the Grand Bazaar, the Egyptian bazaar and many modern shopping malls all around Istanbul.
● Tourists arriving in Istanbul will be required to purchase a tourist Visa – the procedure can be easily done online or at a visa machine before the immigration section of the airport. The Visa costs around 20 USD.
● There are 3 main airports in Istanbul. Hazerfen Airport is a private airport with limited traffic. Atatürk Airport is located on the European side of Istanbul and Sabiha Gökçen Airport is located on the Asian side of Istanbul. Usually planes land at the Atatürk Airport (IATA:IST) which is just 20 km from the city centre. From there a visitor can take a taxi to Taksim Square for around TRY60. Tourists can also use a local airport service called Havataş which runs express bus services every 30 minutes for around TRY11 to Taksim Square and Aksaray.
● Food and drink at the airport is quite expensive and may cost 4 times more than in the city. It is advisable to bring your own meals from the town if you have a lot of waiting to do at the airport. There is also a supermarket close to the airport metro entrance where you can buy reasonably priced food and drink.
● You can change any sort of currency into the Turkish Lira (TRY) just about anywhere across Istanbul. Most shops and supermarkets also accept credit cards for payment.
● Roaming fees in Turkey are expensive, but you can simply buy a new SIM card when you reach Istanbul and use it for the duration of your stay.
● Istanbul has a humid subtropical climate, so the summer months are generally warm and in winter temperatures differ from place to place.
Liver transplant surgery, otherwise called hepatic transplantation, is a practice in which liver of the patient is changed with all or some of the healthy liver of a donor. Orthotopic liver transplantation surgery is one of the most widely recognized kinds of liver transplantation techniques - the new liver is situated in the equivalent anatomic area as the original, diseased one. In Heterotopic liver transplantation surgery, a portion of the new liver is stitched onto a portion of the diseased liver.
The standard list of liver transplant had patients holding up about 232 days, for liver transplantation surgery. Living donor liver transplant surgery can be carried out by utilizing the liver of a spouse, volunteer, sibling, child, parent, or any individual from the family.
A liver transplantation technique is suggested for people experiencing liver disease in the end phase of acute liver failure.
Liver transplantation operation is not suggested for people experiencing heart or lung illness, infections, for instance, osteomyelitis or tuberculosis, cancer, or other life-risking circumstances.
The patient should get into some detailed tests before receiving a liver transplant procedure:
● Heart tests
● Blood and urine tests
● Health assessments
Criteria of liver transplant declare that a living donor organ transplant can merely be utilized from kin up to the fourth degree – this incorporates the patient’s family members, the patient’s spouse and the family members of the spouse. In some health facilities, volunteers can also be donors for the liver transplant operation. Other criteria of liver transplant involve:
● The donor must be healthy
● Having a congruent blood type
● Age in the range of 18 and 60
● Being similar to proportions with the receiver
The operation is carried out under general anesthesia. About 55 to 70% of the right lobe of a living donor is detached and stitched onto the receivers prevailing liver. The liver of the donor will begin to revive immediately, achieving full capacity in about 4-6 weeks. The transplanted liver will likewise return to 100% capacity and proportion, however, it will take extra time – in certain cases recovery from a liver transplant takes up to a year. After the operation is finished, the receiver should pass two days in intensive care and 21 days in a transplant recovery zone. The transplant donor will likewise need to stay about 10 days in the hospital. Usual blood tests will be necessary after the transplant.
Liver transplantation is a somewhat dangerous operation, and complications may sometimes occur, both for the receiver and donor. Donors can encounter a risk of death with 0.5 to 1% possibility while or after the procedure.
Complications of liver transplant can involve:
● The development of blood clots
● Donated liver failure
● Donated liver rejection
● Bile duct complications
When the patient carefully follows all the liver transplant rules, and the operation is performed at a reliable, modern center, the odds of these complications taking place are diminished.
Because special immune system depressant medications are used after liver transplantation operation, patients can experience various side effects, involving:
● Vomiting and nausea
● High blood pressure and cholesterol
● Diarrhea and others
The survival rate of liver transplant following five years is 78% for transplants with a living donor, while the life expectancy of liver transplant following 15 years is 58%. The success rate of a liver transplant as well relies upon the sort of disease the receiver conveys, age and capability to pursue post-operation rules.
Liver transplantation receivers must use immunosuppressive medications whole of their lives. Smoking and alcohol are forbidden after a liver transplant operation. Steady cancer tests are necessary also, as immunosuppressive medications rise the possibility of cancer emerging. The patient should do consistent checkups after a liver transplantation operation – initially week by week and then not as much of frequently.
– How long does a liver transplant last?
In some cases, transplants have lasted up to 30 years. 58% of patients live another 15 years and 48% of patients can live up to 18 years. In recent years, survival rates of liver transplant have improved greatly.
– Does a partial liver transplant provide the same outcomes as a full transplant?
Yes, living donor liver transplants provide the same success rate as a regular full size liver transplantation procedure.
– How many patients usually experience liver transplant rejection?
Liver transplant rejection affects around 15 to 26% of receivers. Immunosuppressive medications are usually administered to all patients.
This content is written and reviewed by our medical content team in September, 2019.