CyberKnife is a robotic radiosurgery system currently being used to treat malignant tumors, benign tumors, and several other medical conditions. The system
Turkey is a treasure trove of traditions, spices, street food delights and destinations for any intrepid tourist. It’s a mix between the familiar and the exotic, ranging from the bustling streets of Istanbul to the serene and relaxed Roman ruins spread around Turkey’s Western and Southern coast. Turkey is a fairly large country with 75 million inhabitants. The country spreads between Europe and Asia, with 97% of the country on the Asian side – Asian Turkey. Turkey is encircled and enjoys access to three different seas: The Black Sea, The Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean. Istanbul is the largest city in Turkey and the largest city in Europe, regarding population – It has over 14 million people.
Turkey’s medical infrastructure has improved greatly beginning with the early 2000s and now is one of the biggest medical tourism hubs in Europe and Asia. Turkey has the largest number of JCI-accredited hospitals, second only to the USA and hospitals are more often than not part of international healthcare groups, following strict European protocols and regulations. Turkey has 28.000 medical institutions spread across the European and Asian side but some of the biggest private hospitals and medical centres are in Istanbul, Ankara, Antalya and Bodrum – these also happen to be some of the best tourist destinations in Turkey.
Bodrum is one of the most popular tourist destinations in Turkey, with its sandy beaches and small streets littered with traditional shops and elegant restaurants. The town used to be called Halicarnassus, and the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus is one of the World’s Seven Ancient Wonders. Bodrum also features a castle built by the crusaders in the 15th century.
Istanbul is the home of several architectural treasures, including the Blue Mosque. The Blue Mosque was built on the orders of Sultan Ahmed between 1609 and 1616 and the Sultan’s body still resides within the mosque. The high ceiling is lined with more than 20000 handmade ceramic tiles, hence the name – The Blue Mosque.
Pamukkale, meaning “The Cotton Castle” in Turkish is a surreal destination in the country’s western region of Denizli, world renowned for its white terraces with warm spring water. The ancient Greek city of Hierapolis was built over the springs and Pamukkale was a renowned destination in antiquity as well. Tourists can visit the ancient Roman and Greek ruins of the baths, temples and theatres dating to the second century BC.
● If you don’t feel like waiting in a queue, you can get a VISA for Turkey online. The VISA usually costs around $20 for US travellers.
● Turkey’s population is predominantly Islamic so it’s a good idea to wear a headscarf while visiting mosques. Shorts or any other garments that fit under the knee are not prohibited by law but it’s considered good etiquette not to wear shorts for men or short skirts for women.
● You can change any sort of currency into the Turkish Lira – the Turkish currency just about everywhere. Most supermarkets and shops also accept credit cards.
● Roaming fees in Turkey can be somewhat expensive, so it’s a good idea to simply buy a new Turkish SIM card and use it while staying in Turkey.
● Turkey’s international calling code is +90.
● Electrical installations usually operate on 220 volts, 50 Hz and use European style plugs and European style sockets. Four and Five star hotels usually provide North American - 120 volts, 60 Hz sockets as well.
● Driving in Turkey can be a hassle sometimes, but very pleasurable at other times. Roads are usually in good shape and some roads actually lack traffic, so it can be a relaxing experience. In Turkey, people drive on the right, so that’s a detail you will need to keep in mind. In some areas, villagers made cardboard and marker pen signs in order to help lost tourist on their way.
● Renting a car in Turkey is quite simple and cheap. If you have the budget for a full insurance, you should definitely take it – if anything happens, at least you won’t have to worry about money.
● The Turkish Airlines Company, THY offers destinations to just about anywhere in the world with a total of 261 destinations. The company was founded in 1933 and features 285 passenger and cargo planes.
● Turkey uses the metric system which is easy enough to understand – 1 Km = 1000 meters, 1 Kg = 1000 grams, and so on. One mile equals 1.60 Km.
● Turkish people are warm and very hospitable - It is customary for people to hug and kiss both cheeks regardless of their gender.
● Turkish street food is very diverse, from the simple bagel-type snack Simit to the familiar pizza-type Lahmacun, there are tons of variants to just about anything.
● Turkish coffee is world renowned, but it’s also a bit different than say, its American counterpart - It is usually a strong coffee with a rich aroma, served very hot from a small traditional cup. Be careful not to drink any of the coffee grounds still in the cup.
● Turkish delight, as the name suggests, can be a really sweet delight for tourists. It is made from sugar, starch and just about any fruit or aroma imaginable, including walnuts, hazelnuts, pistachios, dates, lemon, orange, rosewater and many others. Turkish delight is usually served with coffee and it became popular all around the world, including in the Balkans region and as far as Brazil and North America.
CyberKnife is a robotic radiosurgery system currently being used to treat malignant tumors, benign tumors, and several other medical conditions. The system was developed in the early 90’s and since then it has been continuously improved.
The Cyberknife system allows delivering radiotherapy to certain areas of the body with greater accuracy as compared to standard radiotherapy. The Cyberknife system is composed of two main elements which set it apart from traditional radiotherapy systems:
● A linear particle accelerator – this component produces a very precise beam of radiation
● A robotic arm – the robotic arm allows cyberknife radiation to be directed at any part of the patient’s body and from any direction
These components allow oncologists to treat areas that were previously unapproachable. Cyberknife treatment is especially suitable for patients who cannot benefit from traditional radiation therapy, cancer surgery or chemotherapy.
A typical cyberknife treatment consists of one to five radiation sessions. Each cyberknife treatment delivers around 150 beams of radiation to the cancerous area. The Cyberknife system tracks the tumor inside the patient’s body during the time which the beams are delivered, ensuring great precision and little or no damage to surrounding healthy tissue. Cyberknife treatment has little or no side effects and the procedure doesn’t require any incisions or anesthesia – it’s simple, very effective and no recovery time is needed.
Cyberknife treatment is recommended for patients suffering from cancerous or non-cancerous tumors in several areas of the body, including:
Cyberknife treatment can be used alone or in conjunction with chemotherapy, depending on the tumor size and location. The procedure is especially recommended for patients suffering from inoperable tumors or brain tumors.
Cyberknife treatment is not recommended for patients suffering from one or more of the following:
● Spinal instability
● Neurological deficit caused by pressure from bone structures
● Previous high dose radiotherapy
● Metastatic cancer
Patients must go through several tests in order to determine the location, shape, and size of the tumor. CT scans, MRIs or angiographies may be performed. All data gathered during these tests is fed into the Cyberknife system and an oncologist will prepare the patient’s treatment plan. The treatment plan includes the targeted areas and the radiation dose necessary to treat the tumor.
The patient will be asked to sit comfortably on a treatment table. The procedure is painless, so anesthesia is not necessary during treatment. Patients are required to sit in a plastic mold that will maintain their position between 40 and 90 minutes – during this time the Cyberknife system will send beams of radiation into the patient’s tumor. Real-time images are taken during the procedure, in order to ensure that the tumor has not moved or in order to make adjustments. Most patients require between one and five visits for cyberknife treatment.
40 to 90 minutes
Patients may return home immediately after the cyberknife treatment. There is no recovery time for this procedure and most patients return to their normal activities in the same day.
Cyberknife treatment risks and complications depend on the treated area. Most patients can expect fatigue and some weight loss after cyberknife treatment.
Cyberknife side effects are very rare but they can occur. These side effects can occur after the treatment is complete or during the treatment session. It’s important to note that side effects depend heavily on the treated area.
General Cyberknife treatment side effects can include:
A study based on 160 patients suffering from advanced high-risk tumors revealed a 73.13% average success rate for cyberknife treatment: for 18 patients the tumors disappeared, for 99 the tumors shrunk considerably, 35 were unchanged and 8 were enlarged.
Once the cyberknife treatment is over, patients will be able to resume their normal activities but follow-up tests will be necessary for a couple of months. These tests are done in order to monitor the tumor’s response to treatment.