Oncology is one of the branches of medicine, focused on tumours and cancer treatment. Cancer is a disease, in which body cells began to mutate and pose a threat to one’s health or even life. There are different types of cancer, such as lung cancer, leukemia, brain cancer, liver cancer, prostate cancer, breast cancer and soft tissue cancers such as various sarcomas.
The history of oncology in its modern form is quite short but people have observed tumors and cancers for thousands of years, often describing only those types which were visible on the outside. The term “oncology” comes from Galen, who used the Greek word ‘oncos’ (swelling) to describe tumors of all kind and ‘cancer’ (crab) for their malignant forms. Up until 19th century, people used Greek and Roman cancer treatments based on “humours” with close to no effect, since the knowledge of cells was non-existent. The advent of microscope use in medicine, as well as the discovery of radiation by Marie Curie-Skłodowska, had an important contribution to the development of oncology and cancer treatments.
Oncology employs many cancer treatment techniques. Oncology surgery is used when there is a chance of cancer removal. Therefore it is usually performed in early cancer stages when it didn’t spread to other body parts through the process of metastasis. In later cancer stages, oncology doctor conducts usually chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy. Chemotherapy treatment means utilisation of powerful drugs in cancer treatment. Those drugs are strong enough to kill cancer cells but can also cause a lot of collateral damage in the patient’s body. In radiation therapy, oncologists use radiation as an effective cancer treatment. Radiation may be emitted by a machine (external radiation therapy) or injected/swallowed (internal radiation therapy). However, these aren’t all options of oncology treatment. Apart from cancer surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy, there are new, experimental therapies: gene therapies, targeted therapies, and others, which bring even brighter future for cancer patients.
Nobody has delusions that only elder people become cancer patients anymore. Seemingly, perfectly healthy young people may have a tumor or early cancer stages in their body without knowing it. That’s why it is so important to react to all cancer symptoms without hesitation. Especially skin cancers such as melanomas or soft tissue cancers become visible with time, allowing for rather quick identification and successful cancer treatment.
Due to the development of medical tourism, many patients decide for cancer treatment abroad. In some countries, more advanced therapies are not refunded and cancer patients are willing to pay on their own to get the best oncology treatment possible. One of the trends among patients from Western Europe and the US is to look for a cancer hospital in India, where cancer treatment costs are relatively low and affordable. However, closer to Europe there are other health tourism destinations which offer comparable cancer care for the similar price. Since chemotherapy and radiation therapy cost might be too expensive in the most popular oncology centers in the world, such as USA, Australia, and the UK, people prefer to go alternative medical tourism destinations where they can find affordable costs and quality cancer treatment. For example, chemotherapy cost in Turkey or in India is quite affordable. For instance, Turkey for years enjoys a good opinion for its top-end clinics and specialists. Also, India has welcomed so many international patients in the recent years.
Most Common Cancer Treatments Abroad
Romania or The Republic of Romania is located in Southeastern Europe. Romania borders the Black Sea, Ukraine, Bulgaria, Serbia, Hungary and Moldova. Bucharest is the capital of Romania and the sixth largest city in the European Union. Romania offers both natural beauty and a rich cultural heritage. Visitors can enjoy wide unspoiled countryside areas, historic cities and mountain landscapes. In the last 10 years, Romania experienced significant development in virtually all fields, including economy, culture and healthcare.
Romania continuously improved its medical infrastructure in the last years. Many private hospitals and medical centres were also opened recently by international health groups. Romanian physicians and medical staff in general have extensive experience in the field. In recent years, Romania became a favourite destination for international patients. Dental clinics offer excellent quality at very affordable prices – international patients can save up to 85% for dental work in Romania. Every year, around 250.000 international patients visit Romania for medical reasons – most of the patients come from Germany, Italy, Israel and the United Kingdom. This figure is expected to double in the next years. Medical clinics from Transylvania and Bucharest are the most popular destinations in Romania.
Peles Castle is a Neo-Renaissance castle located deep in the Carpathian Mountains, near Sinaia. It was built and expanded between 1873 and 1914.
Bran Castle, near Brasov is one of Romania’s most popular landmarks. The fortress is commonly known as “Dracula’s Castle”.
The Danube Delta is the second largest river delta in Europe. It’s also the best preserved river delta on the continent. This is an UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Sibiu is one of the most important cultural centres of Romania. The city became an European Capital of Culture in 2007, along with Luxembourg. Forbes ranked Sibiu as Europe’s 8th most idyllic place to live.
The Turda Salt Mine is located close to the city of Cluj. Business Insider ranked the salt mine as “the most beautiful underground place in the world”. The Turda Salt Mine is also ranked as the 22th most spectacular tourist destinations in the world.
The Merry Cemetery from Maramures is famous for its colourful tombstones ornate with paintings and poems. This is the only merry cemetery in the world.
● Romania has both temperate and continental climate. Summers are hot with rare rainfall and winters can be quite cold with ample amounts of precipitations.
● Romania’s main airport is the Henri Coanda (Otopeni) Airport. This is the largest and busiest airport in Romania, with direct flights to all major cities in Europe and a few Middle Eastern capitals. Cluj-Napoca, Timisoara, Sibiu and Bacau also have airports with direct flights to European countries.
● The official language in Romania is Romanian, a Romance Language. English, German, Hungarian and French are also common.
● Romania uses the Leu (RON) as currency. Although it’s more affordable than destinations in Western Europe, Romania is not a cheap destination. Transport, food and drink are generally quite affordable while rent can be a bit more expensive, especially in bigger cities.
● Romania uses the 230V, 50Gz electrical system fitted with European style plugs. Four and five star hotels usually provide visitors with adapters for American or British style plugs.