Pancreas transplant surgery or pancreas transplantation surgery involves planting a healthy pancreas or part of a healthy pancreas into another
Turkey is a treasure trove of traditions, spices, street food delights and destinations for any intrepid tourist. It’s a mix between the familiar and the exotic, ranging from the bustling streets of Istanbul to the serene and relaxed Roman ruins spread around Turkey’s Western and Southern coast. Turkey is a fairly large country with 75 million inhabitants. The country spreads between Europe and Asia, with 97% of the country on the Asian side – Asian Turkey. Turkey is encircled and enjoys access to three different seas: The Black Sea, The Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean. Istanbul is the largest city in Turkey and the largest city in Europe, regarding population – It has over 14 million people.
Turkey’s medical infrastructure has improved greatly beginning with the early 2000s and now is one of the biggest medical tourism hubs in Europe and Asia. Turkey has the largest number of JCI-accredited hospitals, second only to the USA and hospitals are more often than not part of international healthcare groups, following strict European protocols and regulations. Turkey has 28.000 medical institutions spread across the European and Asian side but some of the biggest private hospitals and medical centres are in Istanbul, Ankara, Antalya and Bodrum – these also happen to be some of the best tourist destinations in Turkey.
Bodrum is one of the most popular tourist destinations in Turkey, with its sandy beaches and small streets littered with traditional shops and elegant restaurants. The town used to be called Halicarnassus, and the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus is one of the World’s Seven Ancient Wonders. Bodrum also features a castle built by the crusaders in the 15th century.
Istanbul is the home of several architectural treasures, including the Blue Mosque. The Blue Mosque was built on the orders of Sultan Ahmed between 1609 and 1616 and the Sultan’s body still resides within the mosque. The high ceiling is lined with more than 20000 handmade ceramic tiles, hence the name – The Blue Mosque.
Pamukkale, meaning “The Cotton Castle” in Turkish is a surreal destination in the country’s western region of Denizli, world renowned for its white terraces with warm spring water. The ancient Greek city of Hierapolis was built over the springs and Pamukkale was a renowned destination in antiquity as well. Tourists can visit the ancient Roman and Greek ruins of the baths, temples and theatres dating to the second century BC.
● If you don’t feel like waiting in a queue, you can get a VISA for Turkey online. The VISA usually costs around $20 for US travellers.
● Turkey’s population is predominantly Islamic so it’s a good idea to wear a headscarf while visiting mosques. Shorts or any other garments that fit under the knee are not prohibited by law but it’s considered good etiquette not to wear shorts for men or short skirts for women.
● You can change any sort of currency into the Turkish Lira – the Turkish currency just about everywhere. Most supermarkets and shops also accept credit cards.
● Roaming fees in Turkey can be somewhat expensive, so it’s a good idea to simply buy a new Turkish SIM card and use it while staying in Turkey.
● Turkey’s international calling code is +90.
● Electrical installations usually operate on 220 volts, 50 Hz and use European style plugs and European style sockets. Four and Five star hotels usually provide North American - 120 volts, 60 Hz sockets as well.
● Driving in Turkey can be a hassle sometimes, but very pleasurable at other times. Roads are usually in good shape and some roads actually lack traffic, so it can be a relaxing experience. In Turkey, people drive on the right, so that’s a detail you will need to keep in mind. In some areas, villagers made cardboard and marker pen signs in order to help lost tourist on their way.
● Renting a car in Turkey is quite simple and cheap. If you have the budget for a full insurance, you should definitely take it – if anything happens, at least you won’t have to worry about money.
● The Turkish Airlines Company, THY offers destinations to just about anywhere in the world with a total of 261 destinations. The company was founded in 1933 and features 285 passenger and cargo planes.
● Turkey uses the metric system which is easy enough to understand – 1 Km = 1000 meters, 1 Kg = 1000 grams, and so on. One mile equals 1.60 Km.
● Turkish people are warm and very hospitable - It is customary for people to hug and kiss both cheeks regardless of their gender.
● Turkish street food is very diverse, from the simple bagel-type snack Simit to the familiar pizza-type Lahmacun, there are tons of variants to just about anything.
● Turkish coffee is world renowned, but it’s also a bit different than say, its American counterpart - It is usually a strong coffee with a rich aroma, served very hot from a small traditional cup. Be careful not to drink any of the coffee grounds still in the cup.
● Turkish delight, as the name suggests, can be a really sweet delight for tourists. It is made from sugar, starch and just about any fruit or aroma imaginable, including walnuts, hazelnuts, pistachios, dates, lemon, orange, rosewater and many others. Turkish delight is usually served with coffee and it became popular all around the world, including in the Balkans region and as far as Brazil and North America.
Pancreas transplant surgery or pancreas transplantation surgery involves planting a healthy pancreas or part of a healthy pancreas into another person, usually suffering from diabetes.
The pancreas is a vital organ of the human body. It plays a vital role in digestion and production of insulin, among others. Usually, when a pancreas transplant is performed, the patient’s own pancreas is left in place and the new, donated pancreas is attached in a different location. This is done because in certain cases the new pancreas is rejected by the body, which can be fatal if the patient’s own pancreas has been removed.
There are two main types of pancreas donors:
● Living donors – Pancreas transplant surgery can be performed with living donors. There are certain requirements which need to be fulfilled in order to be able to donate a part of the pancreas. This procedure is also known as partial pancreas transplant surgery.
● Recently deceased donors – Pancreas transplant surgery from recently deceased donors implies transplanting the whole organ, as opposed to just a part of it.
There are four types of pancreas transplant surgery:
● Single pancreas transplant surgery – This is usually performed on patients suffering from type 1 diabetes, but with good functionality of the kidneys
● Simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplant – Also known as SPK, this procedure implies the transplant of a pancreas and kidney simultaneously from the same deceased donor
● Pancreas after kidney transplant – Also known as PAK, implies a pancreas transplant procedure after a different kidney transplant has been performed using a different donor
● Simultaneous deceased-donor pancreas and live-donor kidney transplant – This type of pancreas transplant also has the best outcomes.
Over 90% of pancreas transplantation procedures are simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplants.
Pancreas transplant surgery is recommended for patients suffering from Type 1 Diabetes, as these patients are more at risk of developing severe complications from the disease.
Pancreas transplant surgery is not recommended for patients suffering from:
● Pancreatic cancer
● Morbid obesity
● Substance abuse
● Psychiatric disease
Other contraindications may still apply.
Patients need to avoid smoking for at least 4 weeks before the pancreas transplant procedure. Blood thinners, herbal teas and anti inflammatory medicine need to be avoided. Patients need to be in a good state of health for the procedure to be successful. A physician will evaluate the patient’s state of health before proceeding with the pancreas transplant.
General anaesthesia is administered to the patient. The surgeon then creates an incision on the center of the patient’s abdomen. The new pancreas is harvested with a small portion of the small intestine. The doctor will then proceed to attach the new pancreas to the patient’s bladder or small intestine. Blood vessels are also connected to the new pancreas. The patient’s old pancreas is left untouched – this is a security measure in case the transplant gets rejected.
The incision is then stitched and bandages are carefully applied. The procedure itself takes around 3 hours to complete.
Patient is required to stay 1 week in hospital
3 to 4 weeks
The patient will spend a few days in an intensive care unit, under strict medical supervision. The new pancreas should start working immediately after the pancreas transplant surgery. Patients are also required to spend a week or more in hospital and close medical supervision is required for another 3-4 weeks. Immunosuppressant drugs are administered to the patient immediately after the procedure is complete.
Pancreas transplant surgery complications can include:
● Transplant rejection
Pancreas transplant surgery patients can expect pain, discomfort and swelling around the incision site. Nausea and vomiting are also quite common.
The average pancreas transplant success rate is around 95%, at one year after the procedure is performed.
Pancreas transplant surgery can extend a patient’s life by several years. Around 85% of transplanted pancreases are functional for several years after the procedure has been performed. Immunosuppressant drugs can increase the chance of developing other diseases such as infections or cancer.