Istanbul is the biggest city in Turkey and In Europe, according to population – it has over 14 million inhabitants. Istanbul is Turkey’s financial, cultural and healthcare hub – it’s the city with the most JCI accredited private hospitals. The city spreads on both sides of the Bosphorus – The strait that divides the Marmara Sea and the Black Sea. Istanbul also connects Europe to Asia forming a very interesting mix, both gastronomically and culturally.
Over 11 million tourists visited Istanbul in 2012, making it the fifth most popular tourist destination in the world.
Sights to See
The Blue Mosque
The Sultan Ahmed Mosque, also called the Blue Mosque incorporates Islamic architecture and Byzantine Christian elements in its design. It is considered to be the last great mosque of the classical period. The Mosque got its name from the 20,000 Iznik blue ceramic tiles used to line its interiors. The Blue Mosque is also the final resting place of Sultan Ahmed which commissioned the building in 1609, with work finishing in 1616.
The Basilica Cistern is one of the most popular tourist sites in Istanbul. The Cistern is huge, with a total of 336 columns arranged in 12 rows. It was built in order to store water during the Byzantine time – in the 6th century. Most of the columns feature decorative carvings, as they were re-used from other classical-age structures. Some of the most interesting columns on the site are the Medusa stones, in the north-west corner of the Cistern.
Topkapı Palace is one of the finest examples of Islamic art and architecture. The palace itself was built by Mehmet the Conqueror in the 15th century and has been the residence of Ottoman Sultans for over 400 years. The palace is a vast complex of richly decorated courtyards and rooms. The palace features a Harem, the Imperial Treasury room, the Imperial Council Chamber, the Second Court, the Third Court (the Sultan’s private rooms) and the Palace Kitchens. The palace became an UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1985 and has been described as “one of the best examples of palaces of the Ottoman period”.
Tourists can enjoy a wide range of shopping centres and bazaars such as the Grand Bazaar, the Egyptian bazaar and many modern shopping malls all around Istanbul.
Things to Know
● Tourists arriving in Istanbul will be required to purchase a tourist Visa – the procedure can be easily done online or at a visa machine before the immigration section of the airport. The Visa costs around 20 USD.
● There are 3 main airports in Istanbul. Hazerfen Airport is a private airport with limited traffic. Atatürk Airport is located on the European side of Istanbul and Sabiha Gökçen Airport is located on the Asian side of Istanbul. Usually planes land at the Atatürk Airport (IATA:IST) which is just 20 km from the city centre. From there a visitor can take a taxi to Taksim Square for around TRY60. Tourists can also use a local airport service called Havataş which runs express bus services every 30 minutes for around TRY11 to Taksim Square and Aksaray.
● Food and drink at the airport is quite expensive and may cost 4 times more than in the city. It is advisable to bring your own meals from the town if you have a lot of waiting to do at the airport. There is also a supermarket close to the airport metro entrance where you can buy reasonably priced food and drink.
● You can change any sort of currency into the Turkish Lira (TRY) just about anywhere across Istanbul. Most shops and supermarkets also accept credit cards for payment.
● Roaming fees in Turkey are expensive, but you can simply buy a new SIM card when you reach Istanbul and use it for the duration of your stay.
● Istanbul has a humid subtropical climate, so the summer months are generally warm and in winter temperatures differ from place to place.
Gynecomastia, also known as “man boobs” is a very common disorder that affects up to 70% of adolescents, but also older males. Gynecomastia causes can include hormonal changes, certain types of medications, drugs and certain health conditions. Hormonal changes can lead to breast development in men, especially during puberty. The increase in bust usually passes on its own in six months to two years. Older males can also experience gynecomastia, mostly due to a decrease in testosterone production caused by the natural aging process. Around 1 in 4 men, aged between 50 and 80 will suffer from gynecomastia at some point in their lives. Certain medications such as drugs used to treat prostate cancer, diazepam, valium, AIDS medications, antibiotics, and antidepressants can also cause gynecomastia. Gynecomastia is also linked with the consumption of alcohol and certain types of drugs such as marijuana, amphetamines and heroin.
Around 75% of gynecomastia cases pass by themselves within 2 years, without the need for any type of treatment. Gynecomastia without surgery is not an option if the condition lasts for more than two years, as medications will be ineffective. In most cases, gynecomastia exercises have little or no effect, so the only option is the surgery.
Some of the most popular surgical techniques used for gynecomastia treatment include:
● Subcutaneous mastectomy, also known as gynecomastia surgery
● Liposuction-assisted mastectomy
● Laser assisted mastectomy
● Laser-lipolysis without liposuction
Gynecomastia removal is recommended for individuals with a growing bust, either due to fatty tissue or enlarged breast tissue.
Am I Suitable for Gynecomastia?
Overweight patients or patients with serious health conditions may not be suitable for gynecomastia surgery.
Preparing for Gynecomastia
The patient should stop taking any blood thinners such as aspirin at least 2 weeks before the gynecomastia surgery.
How is Gynecomastia Performed?
Gynecomastia symptoms may look the same, but the causes are different. There are two main gynecomastia treatment options. If the patient suffers from gynecomastia from a simple build up of fatty tissue in the bust area, a liposuction procedure is a viable gynecomastia treatment. If the patient suffers from enlarged breast tissue, an intraareolar semilunar incision is required, sometimes combined with a liposuction procedure. In both cases the procedure is done under local anaesthesia, making it practically painless.
Local or General anesthetic
Patient is required to stay 1 night in the hospital
Duration of Operation
1 to 2 hours
Back to Work
3 to 4 days
The Gynecomastia surgery recovery period lasts around 3-4 weeks but the patient may return to work and normal activities in around 3-4 days. The gynecomastia recovery period requires wearing a special type of corset for two weeks – the corset speeds up the healing process and also reduces the chance of complications such as edema.
Gynecomastia Risks and Complications
Gynecomastia surgery, just like any type of plastic surgery has a few risks that need to be taken into consideration:
● Breast asymmetry
Gynecomastia Side Effects
Gynecomastia surgery side effects can include bruising, discomfort, slight pain which can be soothed with painkillers, scarring, bleeding and a temporary loss of sensitivity in the nipple.
Gynecomastia Success Rates
A gynecomastia surgery survey based on 126 gynecomastia patient reviews sets the patient satisfaction rate at 82%, one year after the surgery was performed. Recurrence rates are between 15 and 35% for cases treated with liposuction and just short of 10% for cases treated with excision.
Before and After Gynecomastia
Gynecomastia before and after pictures might look appealing, but the doctor’s instructions need to be followed thoroughly for the gynecomastia removal surgery to be a success.